has two double bonds in conjugation (that is, two double bonds separated only by one single bond and its potassium salt (potassium sorbate) are used as preservatives in many food products as well as in their packaging materials, since they inhibit. Pyruvic acid and acetoacetic acid are the simplest and most important of the -keto and -keto acids, respectively. Examples are PGE2 (a prostaglandin) and LTB4 (a leukotriene). Reactions Involve the Alkyl Group of Carboxyl Compounds The alkyl group of carboxylic acids can involve in halogenation to form haloacids. The 2-hydroxy acids form cyclic dimeric esters (formed by the esterification of two molecules of the acid) called lactides, whereas the 3- and 4-hydroxy acids undergo intramolecular esterification to give cyclic esters called lactones. The reason for the enhanced acidity of this group of compounds can best be demonstrated by a comparison of their acidity with that of alcohols, both of which contain an OH group.
Acetic acid is extensively used in the production of cellulose plastics and esters. Mandelic acid is toxic to bacteria in acidic solution and is used to treat urinary infections. Palmitic acid (C16) constitutes between 20 and 30 percent of most animal fats and is also an important constituent of most vegetable fats (3545 percent of palm oil ). R cooh H2O rightleftharpoons rcoo- H3O The equilibrium constant K for given equation can be expressed as, K fracrcoo- H_3orcoohh_2O Since water present in large plantager lund nova excess; the same equation is written as, K x H2O fracrcoo- H_3orcooh Ka fracrcoo- H_3orcooh Ka is known as acid. Haloalkanes are polar molecules due to the presence of the halogen group on the carbon atom.